Free And Slave States Map – State, Territory, And City Populations

Which states were free and which states had slavery?

How many slaves were there? How many black people were free? Which states did they live in?

How were the states and cities populated when the Civil War began?

Sometimes when learning about the Civil War it’s good to know the geography of the free and slave states, and how the free and slave states were populated. Provided here for reference is a map that shows the free and slave states, listings of the free, slave, and border states, tables of state and territory populations, a table of the total populations of the states and territories, and a table of the 10 largest cities in the United States in 1860.

In the times before and during the Civil War much of the United States was made up of farmland, unsettled territories, and lightly populated areas. Most people lived on farms or in small towns, but in contrast, there were cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and New Orleans which were bustling with people, business, factories, and activity. The South had fewer people than the North, and the North had more enterprise than the South. The South was more rural with farms and plantations, and while the North had its farmers and rural places too, it had more cities. The division of slavery, the “peculiar institution,” would split the union of the states and bring on a Civil War that would end the lives of hundreds of thousands. A Civil War that would forever change the lives of the people and the landscape of the North and the South.

General Map Of The United States Showing Free States, Slave States, And Territories

1857 United States Map

Click/right click on map for larger image.

General map of the United States showing free and slave states, and the territories of the Union.

General map of the United States showing free and slave states, and the territories of the Union.

Map Color Key

  • Free states and territories colored green.
  • Dark green shows the free states.
  • Light gree shows the territories.
  • Slave-holding states colored red.
  • Slave importing states colored dark red.
  • Slave exporting states colored light red.
  • Boundary of the seceding states colored light gray.

 

Free States

  • California
  • Connecticit
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont
  • Wisconsin

 

Slave States

  • Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Virginia

 

Border States

These are salve states that remained in the Union.

  • Delaware
  • Kentucky
  • Maryland
  • Missouri

 

State Populations From 1860 Census

StateTotalWhiteFree BlacksSlavesIndians (a)
Alabama964,201526,2712,690435,080160
Arkansas435,450324,143144111,11548
California379,994358,110 (b)4,086---17,798
Connecticut460,147451,5048,627---16
Delaware112,21690,58919,8291,798---
Florida140,42477,74793261,745---
Georgia1,057,286591,5503,500462,19838
Illinois1,711,9511,704,2917,628---32
Indiana1,350,4281,338,71011,428---290
Iowa674,913673,7791,069---65
Kentucky1,155,684919,48410,684225,48333
Louisiana708,002357,45618,647331,726173
Maine628,279626,9471,327---5
Maryland687,049515,91883,94287,189---
Massachusetts1,231,0661,221,4329,602---32
Michigan749,113736,1426,799---6,172
Minnesota172,023169,395259---2,369
Mississippi791,305353,899773436,6312
Missouri1,182,0121,063,4893,572114,93120
New Hampshire326,073325,579494------
New Jersey672,035646,69925,31818 (c)---
New York3,880,7353,831,59049,005---140
North Carolina992,622629,94230,463331,0591,158
Ohio2,339,5112,302,80836,673---30
Oregon52,46552,160128---177
Pennsylvania2,906,2152,849,25956,949---7
Rhode Island174,620170,6493,952---19
South Carolina703,708291,3009,914402,40688
Tennessee1,109,801826,7227,300275,71960
Texas604,215420,891355182,566403
Vermont315,098314,369709---20
Virginia1,596,3181,047,29958,042490,865112
Wisconsin775,881773,6931,171---1,017

Notes:
(a) – does not include 294,500 Indians who kept their tribal character
(b) – 34,933 Asians included
(c) – Indentured servants
Data source: The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference

 

Territory Populations From 1860 Census

TerritoryTotalWhiteFree BlacksSlavesIndians (a)
Colorado34,27734,23146------
Dakota4,8372,576------2,261
Kansas107,206106,3906252189
Nebraska28,84128,696671563
Nevada6,8576,81245------
New Mexico93,51682,92485---10,507
Utah40,27340,125302989
Washington11,59411,13830---426
District of
Columbia (b)
75,08060,76311,1313,1851

Notes:
(a) – does not include 294,500 Indians who kept their tribal character
(b) – Populations included: Georgetown (8,733), Washington City (61,122), rest of the District (5,225).
Data source: The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference

 

Population Totals States And Territories Combined

Total PopulationWhiteFree BlacksSlavesIndians (a)
31,443,32126,957,471488,0703,953,76044,020

Notes:
(a) – does not include 294,500 Indians who kept their tribal character
Data source: The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference

 

The 10 Largest Cities Of The United States In 1860

CityPopulation
New York, NY813,669
Philadelphia, PA565,529
Brooklyn, NY266,661
Baltimore, MA212,418
Boston, MA177,840
New Orleans, LA168,675
Cincinnati, OH161,044
St, Louis, MO160,773
Chicago, IL112,172
Buffalo, NY81,129

Notes:
Data source: The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference

 

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